Parshat Chukat -
When Did the Mei Meriva Incident Take Place?

(To prepare for this shiur,
see the questions for self study.)

To test a new theory, I'd like to share with you a shiur concerning when the events at Mei Meriva took place, and I would appreciate your feedback. The theory may sound a bit 'radical' at first and I'm not at all convinced that its correct, but I'd like to share it with you since it's very interesting and maybe someone can help me prove or disprove it.

[To follow the shiur you'll definitely need a Tanach in hand; in fact using two would help out when we compare psukim. A "mikraot g'dolot" will come in handy as well.]

Just about everyone takes for granted that the Mei Meriva incident takes place in the 40th year. The reason for this is quite simple - Mei Meriva takes place immediately after the death of Miriam (see Bamidbar 20:1), and Miriam died in the first month of the fortieth year - didn't she? (See Board #1.)

Let's double check this assumption by taking a closer look at that pasuk:

"And Bnei Yisrael [the entire congregation] arrived at Midbar Tzin on the first month, and the people settled down in Kadesh; there Miriam died and was buried." (20:1)
Note, that we are only told that this took place on the first month, but there is no mention of the year at all! So why does everyone assume that it is year forty?

Most of the classical commentators deal with this question. Let's start with Rashbam's explanation (on 20:1):

"And Miriam died there: On the first month at the end of the forty years - for Aharon died on the fifth month of the fortieth year, as it states [explicitly] in Parshat Masei."
Rashbam's logic is quite straightforward. Since later in this same chapter we learn about Aharon's death (see 20:22-29), and since Parshat Masei states explicitly that Aharon died on the fifth month of the fortieth year - then [most likely] Miriam died (four months earlier) during that same year. (See Board #2.)

Note however that Rashbam's assumption is based on "parshanut" (exegesis) and not on a "masoret" (tradition). [In other words, Rashbam doesn't say that we have a tradition that tells that Miriam died in the 40th year; rather, one can deduce this date from the psukim. Therefore, if by using the same tools of "parshanut" [i.e. by carefully studying all of the psukim involved] one arrives at a different conclusion, it is permitted to suggest (and discuss and debate) other possibilities as well - better known as "la'asok b'divrei Torah," "v'akmal."]

Ibn Ezra in his pirush (on 20:1) gets right to the point:

"In the first month: In the fortieth year. And (thus) behold that there is neither a story nor a prophecy in the Torah other than in the first year and in the fortieth year."
Ibn Ezra makes a very bold statement. He claims that from the moment that God decreed the punishment of forty years (after Chet HaMeraglim) Chumash goes into a 'coma' for 38 years; no stories, no mitzvot - we learn about nothing until the fortieth year, and those events begin here in chapter 20!

[One could ask concerning the story of Korach which would seem to have taken place in the interim, but recall that Ibn Ezra himself claims that narrative to be 'out of order' and places it before Bnei Yisrael left Har Sinai! See his pirush to Bamidbar 16:1 and Ramban's refutation as well.]

However, Ibn Ezra does not explain here how he arrives at that conclusion. [We'll return to a possible source later in the shiur, but most probably he would explain as Rashbam did.]

Ramban, too, agrees that Bnei Yisrael first arrive at Midbar Tzin in the fortieth year. [Later we'll see how and why he argues here with Ibn Ezra.] But most important is how he concludes his pirush to 20:1:

"But this Kadesh is located in Midbar Tzin, and [Bnei Yisrael] arrived there in the fortieth year, and there Miriam died, and the psukim are explicit!"

[Note that the "girsa" in Torat Chaim's Ramban is "u'mikraot mfurashim heym" while Chavel's edition has: "u'mikraot mfurashim sham!"]

Now Ramban tells us that the psukim are explicit, but he doesn't say to which psukim he is referring! [Note again how neither Chavel's Ramban nor Torat Chaim's provide a footnote to explain what psukim Ramban is referring to (even though you would expect them to).]

Most likely, Ramban is referring to psukim in Moshe's first speech in Sefer Devarim. In fact, in Chizkuni's parallel explanation (on 20:1; he concurs that they arrive at Midbar Tzin in the fortieth year), he attempts to reconcile these psukim with parallel psukim both in Parshat Masei and in Sefer Devarim. [I suggest that you see that Chizkuni inside, but only after you are familiar with those sources. We'll get back to it later.]

To figure out what Ramban is referring to we must first take a step back and try to follow the flow of events, and then take inventory of all of the related sources in Chumash that describe this leg of Bnei Yisrael's journey.

Where Have They Been Until Now?
Where were Bnei Yisrael before they arrive at Kadesh Midbar Tzin (in 20:1)? Let's work backwards to figure it out.

The last story in Chumash was the incident with Korach. But no where in that narrative are we told where that story took place. [That is what allows Ramban and Ibn Ezra to argue about it.] Therefore we must work our way backwards further to the story of the "meraglim" in Parshat Shlach, which took place in Kadesh Barnea (see, for example, Bamidbar 32:8). (See Board #3.)

In other words, the last place (in Chumash) that Bnei Yisrael were 'spotted' was in Kadesh Barnea. But they couldn't have stayed there very long. Recall that immediately after the Chet HaMeraglim God commands them to leave Kadesh Barnea and head south:

"... the Amalekites and Canaanites are sitting in the valley; tomorrow turn around and travel into the desert towards the Red Sea." (14:25)
(See Board #4.) Bnei Yisrael don't immediately listen, and the "ma'aplilm" decide to attack anyhow (and are defeated; see 14:39-45), but that defeat would not be a reason for them to stay in Kadesh Barnea. God wants them to travel into the desert - to the south - away from Eretz Canaan, for if they stay near Kadesh Barnea most likely they will be attacked by Canaanites who most likely are already on guard because of the 'rumors' about Bnei Yisrael's plan to conquer 'their' land.

Now Parshat Shlach stops right here without telling us if, when, or how they actually left Kadesh Barnea; but according to "pshat," based on 14:25 (quoted above), it would be safe to assume that they left immediately, just as God commanded them to!

As Sefer Bamdibar continues, the next time an encampment is recorded is in Parshat Chukat, as Bnei Yisrael arrive at Kadesh Midbar Tzin (see 20:1). What happened in the meantime? How many years elapsed? Did they travel to (or toward) the Red Sea as God commanded them?

At least partial answers to these questions are found in Parshat Masei and in Sefer Devarim.

The 19 Stop Journey in Parshat Masei
Parshat Masei is our most comprehensive source for it lists all 48 locations in which Bnei Yisrael encamped (see 33:1-49).

[The problem with Parshat Masei is that it mentions locations that are not mentioned anywhere else in Chumash, but skips many locations that are mentioned elsewhere (such as Kadesh Barnea itself)! But that should not affect our shiur too much. Chazal claim that Ritma (33:18) is Kadesh Barnea; see Rashi on 33:18.]

Let's pick up Parshat Masei as it records Bnei Yisrael's journey from Har Sinai (see 33:16). From Sinai they travel to Kivrot HaTa'avah, and then to Chatzerot, and then to Ritma. Now Kivrot HaTa'avah and Chatzerot have already been mentioned in Parshat Bha'alotcha (see 11:34-35), but Ritma is not. However, Parshat Bha'alotcha tells us that they camped next in Midbar Paraan (see 12:16), and from there Moshe sent the meraglim (see 13:3) from an area known as Kadesh Barnea in Midbar Paraan. (See Board #5.)

[Parshat Shlach never mentions Kadesh Barnea explicitly, but everywhere else in Chumash where Chet HaMergalim is mentioned, it states explicitly Kadesh Barnea - see Bamidbar 32:8 and Devarim 1:2,19; 2:14; and 9:23! Most likely "Kadesha" mentioned in 13:26 (in the middle of the story of the meraglim) refers to (and is a short form of) Kadesh Barnea.]

Therefore, Chazal identify Ritma with Kadesh Barnea, and its 'new name' reflects the events that took place there (see Rashi 33:18). Then Parshat Masei mentions an additional 18 stops from Ritma until Bnei Yisrael arrive in Midbar Tzin (see 33:18-36), which were not mentioned anywhere else earlier in Sefer Bamidbar.

[Now you can read the first part of the Chizkuni on 20:1 and better understand what he's talking about.]

Now among the 18 locations we find Yotvata and Etzion Gaver, sites which almost certainly are somewhere in the southern Negev, not far from the Red Sea (i.e. near Eilat). Most likely, this journey southward was a fulfillment of God's command to leave Kadesh Barnea towards the Red Sea (see again 14:25). (See Board #6.)

Then, Parshat Masei tells us that Bnei Yisrael travel from Etzion Gaver and arrive at Kadesh Midbar Tzin (see 33:36-38; compare with 20:1), but does not tell us in which year they finally arrived there.

[However, it is quite clear that they leave Kadesh Midbar Tzin in the fortieth year, for from Kadesh they travel to Hor HaHar to bury Aharon - and that event certainly took place in year 40 as the pasuk itself testifies (33:38).]

So was Kadesh Midbar Tzin really the last stop after a long forty year journey? Or was Kadesh Midbar Tzin the long stopover where Bnei Yisrael may have spent most of the years while waiting for the first generation to die? (See possibilities (A) and (B) in Board #7.)

Enter Sefer Devarim!

Recall that in Moshe Rabbeinu's first speech in Sefer Devarim (chapters 1-4), he explains why forty years had elapsed since Bnei Yisrael should have entered. Therefore, the first part of that speech includes the story of Chet HaMeraglim, for that was the primary reason for the forty year delay.

Will the Real 'Kadesh' Please Stand Up
That story states specifically that the meraglim were sent from Kadesh Barnea (see 1:19), and also includes God's commandment that Bnei Yisrael must immediately leave and travel back into the desert toward the Red Sea (see 1:40). But after the story of the "ma'apilim" (see 1:41-45) there is one small, but very important pasuk:

"Va'teshvu ba'Kadesh yamim rabim, kayamim asher ya'shavtem - And you settled (or sat) in Kadesh many days, as the days that you settled (or sat) there." (1:46)
[Note the difficulty in translating this pasuk! See for example JPS and its footnote.]

So what Kadesh is this pasuk referring to? There are two candidates:

But based on our analysis above, it cannot be Kadesh Barnea (i.e., Board #8)! After all, God commanded them to leave Kadesh Barnea - "machar" - the next day. Why then would they stay there for a long time?

[It cannot be because the ma'apilim lost their battle, since that defeat is only more reason to retreat to a safer location farther away. Most likely the Canaanites have heard rumors of Bnei Yisrael's impending attack and now that they are camped so close (Kadesh Barnea borders on Eretz Canaan; see Bamidbar 34:4), God commands that they move to the South for their own safety. Otherwise they will be attacked and God is no longer 'with them' to protect them in battle.]

So why do almost all of the commentators explain that Kadesh here means Kadesh Barnea (i.e., Board #8)? [See Ibn Ezra and Chizkuni.] After all, in this very same chapter Kadesh Barnea has already been mentioned twice (see 1:2, 1:19 and 2:14) and each time by its full name Kadesh Barnea! Why then would Moshe refer to it now simply as Kadesh - especially when there is another location called Kadesh (i.e. Kadesh Midbar Tzin) which is always referred to simply as Kadesh?!

Following the Flow from Meraglim to Arvot Moav
Most probably, the reason that everyone explains Kadesh here as Kadesh Barnea is because of the immediate context of this pasuk.

[Before continuing, you must review 1:40-2:14 on your own, and attempt to follow the flow. Compare it with the parallel account in Bamidbar 20:14-21:4, and especially 20:16 and 21:4! Pay careful attention to Devarim 2:14 as well.]

Let's follow the flow in Sefer Devarim:

The last pasuk that we quoted is the key to understanding what happened [and its most likely what Ramban was referring to when he said "ha'mikraot m'furashim"].

As Chizkuni (on 2:1) explains, the travel described in this pasuk is precisely the same 18 stops described in Parshat Masei from Ritma to Kadesh Midbar Tzin. Most likely, he reaches this conclusion for the following reason.

Since God commanded Bnei Yisrael to travel towards Yam Suf in 1:40, it only makes sense that this pasuk describes how Bnei Yisrael fulfilled this command. In fact the pasuk states explicitly "as God had commanded us" (2:1) - i.e. his command in 1:40. Furthermore, that journey took "many days;" therefore it coincides perfectly with the 18 stop journey from Ritma to Kadesh (Midbar Tzin) as described in Parshat Masei. If so, then Kadesh that is mentioned in the previous pasuk (1:46) cannot be Kadesh Midbar Tzin, since Bnei Yisrael had not yet arrived there, since they only arrive there after the journey described in 2:1! Therefore, Kadesh in 1:46 must be Kadesh Barnea, and it would seem that Bnei Yisrael remained for a long time in Kadesh Barnea, most probably feeling quite devastated by the events of the meraglim and ma'apilim. (See Board #10.)

But what about God's command of "machar, p'nu us'u lachem" (14:25)? Should they not have left right away?

On the other hand, 2:1 must be talking about the 18 stop journey, for that is the only journey when Bnei Yisrael travel for 'many days' in the direction of Yam Suf. [Isn't it?]

Therefore all of the commentators prefer this explanation of 2:1, and prefer to overlook the problem with "machar" (in God's command in 14:25) - and hence Kadesh in 1:46 must be Kadesh Barnea and therefore, they only arrive in Kadesh Midbar Tzin in the fortieth year.

[I'm almost sure that this is how all of the rishonim understood these psukim; if anyone has heard a different explanation, please write me.]

Not So Fast!
However, there is one small hole in this interpretation. The assumption that 2:1 refers to the 18 stop journey was based on two very logical points:

(In other words, it assumes that Devarim 2:1 must refer to the 18 stop journey, and therefore "Kadesh" in 1:46 cannot be Kadesh Midbar Tzin.) But one can argue with both of these points! [It's a bit complicated, so follow carefully with your Tanach in hand.]

Note how the next set of psukim in Sefer Devarim (see 2:2-8), relates back to the journey described in 2:1. Let's explain how:

"Then God said to me saying: You have been circling this mountain for too long - turn to the North. And command the people saying: You are passing now along the border of your brother Esav... then we passed through the land of 'bnei Esav' along the way of the arava from Eilat and Etzion Gaver and then we passed Moav... until we reached Nachal Zared." (see 2:2-14)
Now this journey cannot be the 18 stop journey from Ritma to Kadesh, since this journey ends in Transjordan, in the land of Moav. In fact, this is the final journey of the end of the fortieth year when Bnei Yisrael pass through Seir, Moav and Amon, fight with Sichon and Og, and camp in Arvot Moav. In other words, this is not the journey of 33:16-36 in Parshat Masei; rather it is the last leg of the journey described in Parshat Masei, i.e. 33:40-49, after they leave Kadesh Midbar Tzin. (See Board #11.)

And if the journey described in 2:2-13 is from Kadesh Midbar Tzin to Arvot Moav, then (based on its context) so must be the journey described in 2:1! (See Board #12.)

And if 2:1 describes this last leg of the journey, the Kadesh mentioned in 1:46 must be Kadesh Midbar Tzin - just as its name implies! (See Board #13.)

But how about our two anchors? How can this last leg of the journey be considered a travel towards Yam Suf, and how could it be referred to "as God had commanded us" (see 2:1)?

The answer is simple. Go back to Parshat Chukat and the parallel account of Bnei Yisrael's departure from Kadesh Midbar Tzin:

"And Moshe sent messengers from Kadesh to the King of Edom saying: ... we are now in Kadesh - a city on your border - let us pass through your land..." (see Bamidbar 20:14-21)
But Edom [=bnei Esav] did not allow Bnei Yisrael to pass. However, God commanded them not to attack Edom, but instead to circle the land Edom by travelling south towards Yam Suf, and then crossing the arava towards the East, and then turning north towards Moav!

And this is exactly what Parshat Chukat tells us in the next chapter:

"And we left Hor HaHar (next to Kadesh), and travelled towards Yam Suf, to circle the land of Edom..." (21:4)
[From there they travelled north (see 21:10-20) through Moav, etc., ending up in Arvot Moav. Compare this journey with the second leg in Parshat Masei (33:38-48); you'll see that its the same journey!]

So lo and behold we find a second journey, commanded by God, where Bnei Yisrael travel towards Yam Suf and circle Har Seir. It is this journey, described in Parshat Chukat and detailed in Parshat Masei (33:38-48) that Devarim 2:1 could very easily be referring to! And hence, this second journey as well fulfills both criteria mentioned above ("derech Yam Suf" and "as God commanded"), and Kadesh in 1:46 can still be Kadesh Midbar Tzin, and all of the psukim work out perfectly!

The final proof that Bnei Yisrael must have left Kadesh Barnea immediately and not waited there for too long is from Devarim 2:14:

"And the days that we travelled from Kadesh Barnea until we reached Nachal Zared (border with Moav) were 38 years..."
This pasuk states explicitly that Bnei Yisrael left Kadesh Barnea in year 2, and therefore, they could not have stayed there for "yamim rabim" [which implies many years; see Breishit 24:55].

In Conclusion (and some remarks)
So "l'mai nafka minah" - what difference does it make when Bnei Yisrael first arrived in Kadesh?

If we understand that they arrive in Kadesh Midbar Tzin only in year 40, then Moshe's sin at Mei Meriva takes place in the fortieth year, and Miriam dies at an age of approximately 130!

However, based on our shiur we can entertain the possibility that Bnei Yisrael arrived in Kadesh Midbar Tzin only several years after Chet HaMeraglim, i.e. after the 18 stop journey from Kadesh Barnea (southward) towards Yam Suf back, and then back north to Kadesh Midbar Tzin. Now this journey most likely took several years as it served as a precaution against any further Canaanite attacks, but there is no reason why it should have taken thirty eight years! If indeed this journey was only several years, then Moshe's sin at Mei Meriva could have taken place only a short time after Chet HaMeraglim and the story of Korach. Consequently, this would fit in thematically very nicely with our shiurim on Bha'alotcha, Shlach, and Korach, which all indicate a slow but definite gap between Moshe and the people and hence the collapse of his leadership. Then, the story at Mei Meriva would form the conclusion of these events, rather than an isolated incident that took place some 38 years later. [It would also have Miriam's death at an age under 120.]

There are several other implications, but the main purpose of this shiur was simply to study Chumash, trying to figure out all of the possibilities. Once again, if you have any comments to help prove or disprove this theory, please write.

Virtual ClassRoom enhancements by Reuven Weiser.

For Further Iyun
A. Note also from Bamidbar 34:4 that Kadesh Barnea is located on the southern border of Eretz Canaan, and that's exactly why the meraglim are sent from there. (Today, this area is identified just over the Egyptian border with Israel, in the Negev, about 20 kilometers east of Sdeh Boker and south of Nitzana.)

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